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Brief Description of the Components of CPU

It is known to all of us that the CPU is one ofthe most essential part of any computer. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor is also called the brain of the computer. Without it, a computer is simply inoperable.

Now, there are various components inside the CPU which are connected to each other via SATA cables. CPU generally does three types of functions, they are,

  • Executing instructions from software and applications
  • Performing all kind of calculations
  • Controlling the timing of every operation

Today we would discuss those components of CPU in brief.

Following are the components of CPU. Have a read

1.Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

If CPU is the brain of the computer, then ALU is the brain of the CPU. This component of the CPU performs all the mathematical and logical functions, like, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc. The ALU also controls the logical operations and takes the necessary logical decisions required for the functioning of a computer.


Register or Accumulator is a tiny temporary storage of diverse data.Data of ALU or data coming from RAM which is going to the processor for implementation or data coming from theprocessor and going to RAM for execution are stored here for a very short span of time. Thus, it is called a local storage or a temporary storage.


Brief Description of the Components of CPU

Though it is not directly a part of CPU, it is an important device, because unlike register, it provides the permanent storage for data.

4.Control Unit

From its name, it is clear that the control unit is responsible for controlling all the operations of CPU. It is basically a circuit which issues commands and sends instructions to other hardware devices of the computer, in order to implement a software program. But what is to be noted here is that control unit does not implement any program itself. It only subjects the necessary commands for the implementation of a certain program. It also schedules or decides which signal or command is to be sent to which hardware. That’s how control unit directs the whole system.

5.External Data Path


It refers to the connector or bus which is taking data from memory and sending it to the processor. The data path, in this case, is narrow. A small external data bus affects the performance of your computer in a negative way, i.e. it slows down your computer’s performance. Whereas a large external data bus boosts the performance of your PC.

6.Internal Data Path

This is another bus or connector which connects the processor to the motherboard. The internal data bus has a wider path compared to the external data bus.

Address Lines


The last and final component of the CPU are the address lines. Their basic function is to identify the exact location where data can be found.

These were the essential components of the CPU. Each of them is connected to each other by SATA cables. To know more about them and to know more about these connectors, visit layerpoint.com now!